Current concepts for shoulder training in the overhead athlete

Curr Sports Med Rep. 2009 May-Jun;8(3):154-60. doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181a64607.


Nontraumatic shoulder pain in the adult overhead athlete is a common problem. The exact biomechanical adaptations that predispose the overhead athlete to injury can be multifactorial in nature, including range of motion deficits, muscular imbalances, and scapular dyskinesis. It is imperative that the rehabilitation professional not only correctly identify and treat the direct cause of the pain, but also initiate a rehabilitation program aimed at improvement of the underlying biomechanical deficits that predispose the overhead athlete to shoulder injury. This only can be accomplished through a better understanding of the most common biomechanical deficits that the overhead athlete develops and how to treat them. This article focuses primarily upon shoulder training in the adult baseball pitcher as a classic example of an overhead athlete.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Athletic Injuries / rehabilitation*
  • Baseball / injuries*
  • Humans
  • Physical Therapy Modalities
  • Shoulder Impingement Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Shoulder Impingement Syndrome / rehabilitation*