Markers of early disease and prognosis in COPD

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2009;4:157-67. doi: 10.2147/copd.s3106. Epub 2009 Apr 15.


COPD is a complex disease with multiple pathological components, which we unfortunately tend to ignore when spirometry is used as the only method to evaluate the disorder. Additional measures are needed to allow a more complete and clinically relevant assessment of COPD. The earliest potential risk factors of disease in COPD are variations in the genetic background. Genetic variations are present from conception and can determine lifelong changes in enzyme activities and protein concentrations. In contrast, measurements in blood, sputum, exhaled breath, broncho-alveolar lavage, and lung biopsies may vary substantially over time. This review explores potential markers of early disease and prognosis in COPD by examining genetic markers in the alpha(1)-antitrypsin, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and MBL-2 genes, and by examining the biochemical markers fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP), which correlate with degree of pulmonary inflammation during stable conditions of COPD. Chronic lung inflammation appears to contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD, and markers of this process have promising predictive value in COPD. To implement markers for COPD in clinical practice, besides those already established for the alpha(1)-antitrypsin gene, further research and validation studies are needed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cystic Fibrosis / genetics
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator / genetics
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Fibrinogen / metabolism
  • Genetic Markers*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genetic Testing*
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Mannose-Binding Lectin / genetics
  • Odds Ratio
  • Phenotype
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / blood
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / diagnosis*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / genetics
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / mortality
  • Registries
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency / genetics


  • Biomarkers
  • CFTR protein, human
  • Genetic Markers
  • MBL2 protein, human
  • Mannose-Binding Lectin
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
  • Fibrinogen
  • C-Reactive Protein