The herald waves of influenza virus infections detected in Sendai and Yamagata cities in 1985-1990

Microbiol Immunol. 1991;35(5):375-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.1991.tb01568.x.


The community surveillance of respiratory virus infections performed during 1985-1987 in Sendai and 1988-1990 in Yamagata has identified a total of five herald waves of influenza virus infections: A/H3N2 virus infections in 1985 and 1989, A/H1N1 virus infections in 1986 and 1988, and type B virus infections in 1989. To investigate the antigenic and genetic relationships between the herald wave and epidemic strains, influenza A/H1N1 viruses isolated during the 1986 and 1988 herald waves were compared with those isolated during the 1986-1987 and 1988-1989 epidemic seasons, respectively, utilizing hemagglutination inhibition tests with anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal antibodies and oligonucleotide mapping of total viral RNAs. The results showed that multiple variants differing in antigenic and genetic properties were cocirculating during the 1986 herald wave as well as during each of the two epidemics (only one strain was isolated in the 1988 herald wave). It was also observed that viruses which had the antigenic and/or genetic characteristics closely similar to those of the viruses circulating in the 1986 and 1988 herald waves, were isolated during the winters of 1986-1987 and 1988-1989, respectively.

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Hemagglutination, Viral / immunology
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / genetics*
  • Influenza A virus / immunology
  • Influenza B virus / immunology
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology*
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Nucleotide Mapping
  • RNA, Viral / chemistry
  • RNA, Viral / genetics


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, Viral
  • RNA, Viral