Aims: The differential diagnosis of pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) from lung sarcomatoid carcinoma (LSC) invading parietal pleura and chest wall is a challenging issue. The aim of this study was to identify useful antibodies that can be used for the differential diagnosis of pleural SM from LSC.
Methods and results: Forty-five cases of pleural SM and 27 cases of LSC were immunohistochemically analysed by using 15 commercially available antibodies, including D2-40 and antibodies to calretinin, thrombomodulin, Wilms' Tumour 1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Napsin A, thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, pan-cytokeratin, CAM5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-EP4, MOC-31, alpha-smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon and desmin. The results revealed that D2-40 positivity was significantly higher in pleural SM (86.7%) than in LSC (25.9%). The positivity of the adenocarcinoma markers, including CEA, Napsin A, and TTF-1, was low even in LSC.
Conclusions: Evaluating the positivity and degree of staining of the well-known mesothelial marker D2-40 could be applied to differentiate pleural SM from the sarcomatoid component of LSC, in addition to assessing clinical and radiological information.