Cellular kinase inhibitors that suppress enterovirus replication have a conserved target in viral protein 3A similar to that of enviroxime

J Gen Virol. 2009 Aug;90(Pt 8):1869-1879. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.012096-0. Epub 2009 May 13.


Previously, we identified a cellular kinase inhibitor, GW5074, that inhibits poliovirus (PV) and enterovirus 71 replication strongly, although its target has remained unknown. To identify the target of GW5074, we searched for cellular kinase inhibitors that have anti-enterovirus activity similar or related to that of GW5074. With this aim, we performed screenings to identify cellular kinase inhibitors that could inhibit PV replication cooperatively with GW5074 or synthetically in the absence of GW5074. We identified MEK1/2 inhibitors (SL327 and U0126), an EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) as compounds with a cooperative inhibitory effect with GW5074, and an Akt1/2 inhibitor (Akt inhibitor VIII) as a compound with a synthetic inhibitory effect with MEK1/2 inhibitors and AG1478. Individual treatment with the identified kinase inhibitors did not affect PV replication significantly, but combined treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor, AG1478 and Akt1/2 inhibitor suppressed the replication synthetically. The effect of AG1478 in this synthetic inhibition was compensated by other receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (IGF-1R inhibitor II and Flt3 inhibitor II). We isolated mutants resistant to Flt3 inhibitor II and GW5074 and found that these mutants had cross-resistance to each treatment. These mutants had a common mutation in viral protein 3A that results in an amino acid change at position 70 (Ala to Thr), a mutation that was previously identified in mutants resistant to a potent anti-enterovirus compound, enviroxime. These results suggest that cellular kinase inhibitors and enviroxime have a conserved target in viral protein 3A to suppress enterovirus replication.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution / genetics
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Benzimidazoles / pharmacology*
  • Drug Resistance, Viral
  • Humans
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Poliovirus / physiology*
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Viral Core Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Virus Replication / drug effects*


  • 3A protein, Poliovirus
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Viral Core Proteins
  • enviroxime