Symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes with non-daily use

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Jan;6(1):25-35. doi: 10.3390/ijerph6010025. Epub 2008 Dec 23.


Data from a nationally representative sample of smokers (ages 12-22 years, n=2,091) was examined to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes. Six symptoms were assessed: failed cessation, smoking despite a desire to quit, and a need or urge to smoke, irritability, restlessness, or disrupted concentration attributed to nicotine withdrawal. One or more of the six symptoms were present in 18.9% of subjects who smoked less often than once per week. Among subjects who had not smoked 20 cigarettes in their lifetime, 12.6% had symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and 25% had made an unsuccessful quit attempt.

Keywords: Smoking; addiction; adolescents; dependence; tobacco.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Personal Autonomy*
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / physiopathology
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Tobacco Use Cessation
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / physiopathology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult