Implantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) is known to accelerate blood flow recovery in a hindlimb ischemia model in mice. However, the neovascularization capacity of BMMCs from diabetic mice is impaired. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound abundant in red wine, is known to extend the lifespan of high cholesterol-fed mice. We tested whether resveratrol improves the neovascularization capacity of BMMCs from diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by the injection of streptozotocin into C57B/6 mice. BMMCs from normal mice and diabetic mice were implanted into the ischemic limb induced by ligation of the unilateral femoral artery. Blood flow recovery measured by the laser Doppler method was significantly decreased in mice that received BMMCs from diabetic mice compared with BMMCs from normal mice. However, ex vivo treatment of BMMCs from diabetic mice, but not from normal mice, with resveratrol for 30 min significantly improved blood flow recovery. Capillary density measured by PECAM-1 positive cells was significantly increased in mice that received either normal BMMCs or diabetic BMMCs treated with resveratrol. Treatment of BMMCs from diabetic mice with resveratrol increased mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase and decreased production of reactive oxygen species. Resveratrol improved the impaired neovascularization capacity of BMMCs derived from diabetic mice. The effects of resveratrol may be due to a reduction of oxidative stress and an induction of angiogenic factors. Resveratrol may be beneficial by improving the neovascularization capacity of BMMCs in patients with diabetes mellitus.