Background: Mental stress can cause angina in patients with coronary artery disease, but its effects on coronary vasomotion and blood flow are poorly understood. Because atherosclerosis affects the reactivity of coronary arteries to various stimuli, such as exercise, we postulated that atherosclerosis might also influence the vasomotor response of coronary arteries to mental stress.
Methods: We studied 26 patients who performed mental arithmetic under stressful conditions during cardiac catheterization. (An additional four patients who did not perform the mental arithmetic served as controls.) Coronary segments were classified on the basis of angiographic findings as smooth, irregular, or stenosed. In 15 of the patients without focal stenoses in the left anterior descending artery, acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol per liter) was infused into the artery to test endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Changes in coronary blood flow were measured with an intracoronary Doppler catheter in these 15 patients.
Results: The response of the coronary arteries to mental stress varied from 38 percent constriction to 29 percent dilation, whereas the change in coronary blood flow varied from a decrease of 48 percent to an increase of 42 percent. The direction and magnitude of the change in the coronary diameter were not predicted by the changes in the heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine level. Segments with stenoses (n = 7) were constricted by a mean (+/- SE) of 24 +/- 4 percent, and irregular segments (n = 20) by 9 +/- 3 percent, whereas smooth segments (n = 25) did not change significantly (dilation, 3 +/- 3 percent; P less than 0.0002). Coronary blood flow increased by 10 +/- 10 percent in smooth vessels, whereas the flow in irregular vessels decreased by 27 +/- 5 percent. The degree of constriction or dilation during mental stress correlated with the response to the infusions of acetylcholine (P less than 0.0003, r = 0.58).
Conclusions: Atherosclerosis disturbs the normal vasomotor response (no change or dilation) of large coronary arteries to mental stress; in patients with atherosclerosis paradoxical constriction occurs during mental stress, particularly at points of stenosis. This vasomotor response correlates with the extent of atherosclerosis in the artery and with the endothelium-dependent response to an infusion of acetylcholine. These data suggest that in atherosclerosis unopposed constriction caused by a local failure of endothelium-dependent dilation causes the coronary arteries to respond abnormally to mental stress.