Background: High heart rate and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relationship between heart rate and the risk of developing CKD, however, has not been studied in a large screened cohort.
Methods and results: We examined the relationship between heart rate and the risk of developing CKD in participants in a health evaluation program. CKD was diagnosed as glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation or dipstick proteinuria. Among 7,958 subjects, 1,199 subjects diagnosed with CKD or with arrhythmia at baseline examination were excluded. A total of 6,759 subjects (4,268 men, 2,491 women, 20-84 years of age) were evaluated. The subjects were quadrisected according to baseline heart rate. The subjects were followed up for a mean of 47 +/- 16 months (range 7-71 months). Seven hundred and thirty-four subjects developed CKD over the 5-year follow-up period. Subjects with a high heart rate had greater magnitude of decreasing glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher odds ratio of developing proteinuria. Cox analysis indicated that each heart rate category increment led to approximately 1.1 times increase in the risk of developing CKD, eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 1.2 times increase of the risk of developing proteinuria in middle-aged or older subjects.
Conclusions: High heart rate is a risk factor for developing CKD in middle-aged or older subjects.