Predicting poor outcome from acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;38(2):215-30. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2009.03.009.


In conclusion, numerous prediction models identified pre-endoscopic and endoscopic risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute upper GI hemorrhage. The risk factors for mortality are different from those of rebleeding. Predictors for rebleeding are usually related to the severity of the bleeding and characteristics of the ulcer, whereas advanced age, physical status of the patient, and comorbidities are important predictors for mortality in addition to those for rebleeding. Future studies should focus on validation of these predictors in a prospective cohort and application of these prediction models to guide clinical management in patients with acute upper GI hemorrhage.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use
  • Aspirin / adverse effects
  • Aspirin / therapeutic use
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / complications*
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / prevention & control*
  • Helicobacter Infections / complications*
  • Helicobacter pylori*
  • Humans
  • Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / mortality
  • Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / prevention & control
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Aspirin