To examine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) which is known to act as an antioxidant has therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of GSPE (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg) or saline. Clinical, histological, and biochemical parameters were assessed. The effects of GSPE on osteoclastogenesis were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining of the inflamed joints and bone-marrow cells cultured with the receptor activator of nuclear factor B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide were determined using carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the severity of CIA in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the histology scores for synovial inflammation, cartilage erosion, bone erosion, and the number of TRAP+ osteoclasts. GSPE treatment significantly reduced the numbers of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)- or interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing cells in the synovial tissue and the spontaneous production of TNF-alpha and IL-17 by splenocytes compared with those in the control mice. The serum levels of type-II-collagen-specific IgG2a and plasma levels of 8-isoprostane in the GSPE-treated mice were significantly lower than those in the control mice. GSPE dose-dependently suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. GSPE significantly reduced hydrogen peroxide production by anti-CD3-monoclonal-antibody-stimulated CD4+ splenocytes. These results indicate that intraperitoneal injection of GSPE attenuated CIA in mice. GSPE may be useful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.