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Review
, 20 (8), 972-7

Cell Division Orientation and Planar Cell Polarity Pathways

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Review

Cell Division Orientation and Planar Cell Polarity Pathways

Marion Segalen et al. Semin Cell Dev Biol.

Abstract

The orientation of cell division has a crucial role in early embryo body plan specification, axis determination and cell fate diversity generation, as well as in the morphogenesis of tissues and organs. In many instances, cell division orientation is regulated by the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways: the Wnt/Frizzled non-canonical pathway or the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed pathway. Firstly, using asymmetric cell division in both Drosophila and C. elegans, we describe the central role of the Wnt/Frizzled pathway in the regulation of asymmetric cell division orientation, focusing on its cooperation with either the Src kinase pathway or the heterotrimeric G protein pathway. Secondly, we describe our present understanding of the mechanisms by which the planar cell polarity pathways drive tissue morphogenesis by regulating the orientation of symmetric cell division within a field of cells. Finally, we will discuss the important avenues that need to be explored in the future to better understand how planar cell polarity pathways control embryo body plan determination, cell fate specification or tissue morphogenesis by mitotic spindle orientation.

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