Antibiotic use in premature infants after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit

Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010 Mar;49(3):249-57. doi: 10.1177/0009922809336358. Epub 2009 May 15.


Using a retrospective cohort of premature infants, we constructed multivariable Poisson models to determine factors associated with the receipt of antibiotics during the first year after discharge, N = 891. Black race (incidence rate ratio 1.80 compared with White infants, P = .008), male gender (incidence rate ratio 1.44; P = .007), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (incidence rate ratio 1.47; P = .04), and each additional child at home (incidence rate ratio 1.21, P = .002) increased the receipt of antibiotics for any reason. Male gender and additional children at home increased the receipt of non-recommended antibiotics, while Black infants received care at facilities that prescribed more non-recommended antibiotics. Even in a high-risk population of children, factors other than the medical history and presentation of the child may alter antibiotic prescription patterns and result in variations in care.

MeSH terms

  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / drug therapy
  • Drug Utilization Review
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Intensive Care Units, Neonatal*
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Patient Discharge*
  • Poisson Distribution
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors
  • United States
  • Whites / statistics & numerical data*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents