Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. Mar-Apr 2009;42(2):110-3. doi: 10.1590/s0037-86822009000200003.

Abstract

The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.

MeSH terms

  • Aedes / drug effects*
  • Animals
  • Antifungal Agents / chemistry
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antifungal Agents / toxicity
  • Artemia / drug effects*
  • Candida / drug effects
  • Cryptococcus neoformans / drug effects
  • Larva / drug effects
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Malassezia / drug effects
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Mitosporic Fungi / drug effects*
  • Persea / chemistry*
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Seeds / toxicity

Substances

  • Antifungal Agents