Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people

Hum Genet. 2009 Sep;126(3):395-410. doi: 10.1007/s00439-009-0683-0. Epub 2009 May 16.


To help unravel some of the early Eurasian steppe migration movements, we determined the Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial haplotypes and haplogroups of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area dated from between the middle of the second millennium BC. to the fourth century AD. In order to go further in the search of the geographic origin and physical traits of these south Siberian specimens, we also typed phenotype-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal that whereas few specimens seem to be related matrilineally or patrilineally, nearly all subjects belong to haplogroup R1a1-M17 which is thought to mark the eastward migration of the early Indo-Europeans. Our results also confirm that at the Bronze and Iron Ages, south Siberia was a region of overwhelmingly predominant European settlement, suggesting an eastward migration of Kurgan people across the Russo-Kazakh steppe. Finally, our data indicate that at the Bronze and Iron Age timeframe, south Siberians were blue (or green)-eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people and that they might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilization. To the best of our knowledge, no equivalent molecular analysis has been undertaken so far.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Asian People / classification
  • Asian People / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Y / genetics*
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics*
  • Gene Pool
  • Geography
  • Haplotypes / genetics*
  • History, Ancient
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pigmentation
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Siberia
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences


  • DNA, Mitochondrial