We investigated the longitudinal influence of individual-, relationship- and social-level factors on condom use by partner type among young injections drug users (IDUs) enrolled in the Collaborative Injection Drug Users Study-III/Drug Users Intervention Trial (CIDUS-III/DUIT) from 2002 to 2004. Based on longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations (GEE), consistent condom use with main partners was more commonly reported among males and those with greater self-efficacy for condom use; main partner's desire for pregnancy and needle sharing were negatively associated with consistent condom use. Among those with casual partners, having fewer sex partners was associated with consistent condom use. Positive attitudes toward condom use and partner norms supporting condom use were associated with greater consistent condom use with both partner types. These findings suggest that intervention strategies targeting individual- and partner-level factors may provide avenues for intervening upon sexual risks among young IDUs.