Molecular characterization of co-occurring Duchenne muscular dystrophy and X-linked oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome in a girl

Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Jun;149A(6):1249-52. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32863.


Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked condition at the severe end of the spectrum of dystrophinopathies. Females with dystrophin mutations are at risk for cardiomyopathy, but are usually asymptomatic during childhood. However, some girls can exhibit features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy because of skewed X-inactivation, aneuploidy, or chromosomal rearrangement. Oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder, lethal in males, that comprises microphthalmia, congenital cataracts, congenital heart defect, canine radiculomegaly, and digital anomalies. We report on a 7-year-old girl who was referred for muscular hypotonia, with clinical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, including elevated serum creatine phosphokinase, pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, and muscle weakness, which became evident at 3 years of age. In addition, she had multiple congenital anomalies including atrial septal defect, cataracts, dental and digital anomalies, a constellation that suggested the diagnosis of oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome, a condition caused by mutations in BCOR. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of muscle, and mutation analysis of DMD showed a maternally inherited deletion of exons 30-43, confirming the diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Studies of lymphocytes showed essentially complete skewing of X-inactivation. Mutation analysis of BCOR revealed a de novo frameshift mutation (c.1005delC). Thus, we report for the first time on an individual with the co-occurrence of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Child
  • Chromosomes, Human, X*
  • Female
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / genetics*
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Microphthalmos / genetics
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne / genetics*
  • Syndrome
  • Tooth Abnormalities / genetics
  • X Chromosome Inactivation*