Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles forming a tubular network that is sustained by fusion and fission events. Impairment thereof leads to various neuropathies in humans, such as optic atrophy and Parkinson's disease. We have only begun to understand the molecular machineries facilitating fusion and fission of mitochondria and how these processes are regulated. The physiological role of mitochondrial dynamics and how it may be involved in maintaining mitochondrial functionality is still unclear. Here, we discuss current views in this emerging field focusing on the molecular basis of how mitochondrial morphology is regulated and how this may contribute to mitochondrial quality control.