Piercing and vacuum infiltration of the mature embryo: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of indica rice

Plant Cell Rep. 2009 Jul;28(7):1065-74. doi: 10.1007/s00299-009-0706-2. Epub 2009 May 20.


Traditional transformation methods are complex and time consuming. It is generally difficult to transform indica rice varieties using traditional transformation methods due to their poor regeneration. In this contribution, a simple method was developed for the transformation of indica rice. In this method, the mature embryos of soaked seeds were pierced by a needle, and then soaked in the Agrobacterium inoculum under vacuum infiltration. The inoculated seeds germinated and grew to maturation (T (0)) under nonsterile conditions. The herbicide or antibiotic analysis and molecular analysis were conducted on T (0) plants. The results showed that although the efficiency of transformation was about 6.0%, it was easier to transform indica rice using the proposed method, and the transformation process was significantly shortened. The success of transformation was further confirmed by the genetic and molecular analyses of T (1) transformants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA, Plant / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Gene Transfer Techniques*
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Rhizobium / genetics*
  • Seeds / genetics*
  • Transformation, Genetic
  • Vacuum


  • DNA, Plant