Parasitic nematodes can downregulate the immune response of their hosts through the induction of immunoregulatory cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10). To define the underlying mechanisms, we measured in vitro the production of IL-10 in macrophages in response to cystatin from Acanthocheilonema viteae, an immunomodulatory protein of filarial nematodes, and developed mathematical models of IL-10 regulation. IL-10 expression requires stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, and we propose that a negative feedback mechanism, acting at the signalling level, is responsible for transient IL-10 production that can be followed by a sustained plateau. Specifically, a model with negative feedback on the ERK pathway via secreted IL-10 accounts for the experimental data. Accordingly, the model predicts sustained phospho-p38 dynamics, whereas ERK activation changes from transient to sustained when the concentration of immunomodulatory protein of Acanthocheilonema viteae increases. We show that IL-10 can regulate its own production in an autocrine fashion, and that ERK and p38 control IL-10 amplitude, duration and steady state. We also show that p38 affects ERK via secreted IL-10 (autocrine crosstalk). These findings demonstrate how convergent signalling pathways may differentially control kinetic properties of the IL-10 signal.