Cerebellar development in a baboon model of preterm delivery: impact of specific ventilatory regimes

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009 Jun;68(6):605-15. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3181a39b3f.


Premature infants now have an improved chance of survival, but the impact of respiratory therapies on the brain, particularly the cerebellum, remains unclear. We examined the effects of early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (EnCPAP) ventilation and delayed (Dn) CPAP on the development of the cerebellum in prematurely delivered baboons. The baboons were delivered at 125 +/- 2days of gestation and ventilated for 28 days with either EnCPAP commencing at 24 hours (n = 5) or DnCPAP commencing at 5 days (n = 5). Gestational controls (n = 4) were delivered at 153 days. Cerebella were assessed histologically, and an ontogeny study (90 days to term) was performed to establish values for key cerebellar developmental indicators. Cerebellar weight was reduced in DnCPAP but not EnCPAP animals versus controls; cerebellar/total brain weight ratio was increased in EnCPAP (p < 0.05) versus control and DnCPAP animals. There was no overt damage in the cerebella of any animals, but a microstructural alteration index based on morphological developmental parameters and microglial immunoreactivity was increased in both prematurely delivered cohorts versus controls (p < 0.001) and was higher in DnCPAP than EnCPAP animals (p < 0.05). These results indicate that respiratory regimens can influence cerebellar development and that early compared with delayed extubation to nCPAP seems to be beneficial.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Body Weight
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cerebellum / abnormalities*
  • Cerebellum / pathology
  • Cerebellum / physiopathology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling / methods
  • Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Oligodendroglia / metabolism
  • Oligodendroglia / pathology
  • Organ Size
  • Papio
  • Pregnancy
  • Premature Birth / pathology*
  • Premature Birth / physiopathology
  • Premature Birth / therapy*
  • Purkinje Cells / metabolism
  • Purkinje Cells / pathology
  • Respiration
  • Respiration, Artificial / methods*
  • Time Factors


  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins