This study was performed to analyze the effect of etanercept, the soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor, on the serum levels of several chemokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation normal T expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES), and granzyme B in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Twenty-eight patients with RA were administered etanercept once or twice a week for more than 6 months. Clinical and laboratory parameters were measured and serum levels of MCP-1, RANTES, and granzyme B were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after the initial treatment. In addition, the levels of MCP-1, RANTES, and granzyme B produced by cultured synovial cells stimulated with TNF-alpha were measured. A significant decrease in serum MCP-1 levels was observed at 3 and 6 months after initial treatment with etanercept. Serum RANTES and granzyme B levels did not show significant changes. TNF-alpha induced MCP-1, RANTES, and granzyme B production in cultured synovial cells from RA patients. Serum MCP-1 levels were significantly correlated with the disease activity scores of 28 joints combined with CRP (DAS28-CRP), indicating the role of MCP-1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid inflammation. This study demonstrated that a reduction of MCP-1 production in RA patients was a newly determined effect of etanercept. Another cascade not associated with TNF-alpha may induce granzyme B and RANTES production in RA patients.