LRRK2 and GBA mutations differentially affect the initial presentation of Parkinson disease

Neurogenetics. 2010 Feb;11(1):121-5. doi: 10.1007/s10048-009-0198-9. Epub 2009 May 21.


GBA and LRRK2 mutations increase susceptibility to Parkinson disease (PD), which is characterized by various disabling symptoms. An extended cohort of 600 Ashkenazi PD patients was screened for the LRRK2 G2019S and for eight GBA mutations. Reported initial symptoms were compared between three genotypic groups of patients: carriers of GBA mutations, carriers of LRRK2 G2019S mutation, and non-carriers. More LRRK2 G2019S carriers reported muscle stiffness (rigidity, p = 0.007) and balance disturbances (p = 0.008), while more GBA mutation carriers reported slowness (bradykinesia, p = 0.021). These results suggest distinct effects of LRRK2 or GBA mutations on the initial symptoms of PD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Glucosylceramidase / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase-2
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation*
  • Parkinson Disease / genetics*
  • Phenotype
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics*


  • LRRK2 protein, human
  • Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase-2
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Glucosylceramidase