The effect of glass synthesis route on mechanical and physical properties of resultant glass ionomer cements

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009 Oct;20(10):1991-9. doi: 10.1007/s10856-009-3781-6. Epub 2009 May 21.


Glass ionomer cements (GICs) have potential orthopaedic applications. Solgel processing is reported as having advantages over the traditional melt-quench route for synthesizing the glass phase of GICs, including far lower processing temperatures and higher levels of glass purity and homogeneity. This work investigates a novel glass formulation, BT 101 (0.48 SiO(2)-0.36 ZnO-0.12 CaO-0.04 SrO) produced by both the melt-quench and the solgel route. The glass phase was characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine whether the material was amorphous and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to measure the glass transition temperature (T (g)). Particle size analysis (PSA) was used to determine the mean particle size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the structure and composition of the glass. Both glasses, the melt-quench BT 101 and the solgel BT 101, were mixed with 50 wt% polyacrylic acid (M (w), 80,800) and water to form a GIC and the working time (T (w)) and the setting time (T (s)) of the resultant cements were then determined. The cement based on the solgel glass had a longer T (w) (78 s) as compared to the cement based on the melt derived glass (19 s). T (s) was also much longer for the cement based on the solgel (1,644 s) glass than for the cement based on the melt-derived glass (25 s). The cements based on the melt derived glass produced higher strengths in both compression (sigma(c)) and biaxial flexure (sigma(f)), where the highest strength was found to be 63 MPa in compression, at both 1 and 7 days. The differences in setting and mechanical properties can be associated to structural differences within the glass as determined by XPS which revealed the absence of Ca in the solgel system and a much greater concentration of bridging oxygens (BO) as compared to the melt-derived system.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Inorganic / methods*
  • Differential Thermal Analysis
  • Glass / chemistry*
  • Glass Ionomer Cements / chemical synthesis*
  • Glass Ionomer Cements / chemistry
  • Glass Ionomer Cements / pharmacology*
  • Materials Testing
  • Particle Size
  • Phase Transition
  • Physical Phenomena
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Glass Ionomer Cements