Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 1 (1), 11-8

Avian Influenza Infections in Birds--A Moving Target

Affiliations
Review

Avian Influenza Infections in Birds--A Moving Target

Ilaria Capua et al. Influenza Other Respir Viruses.

Expression of concern in

  • An expression of concern.
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Mar;7(2):225. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00372.x. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013. PMID: 23398906 Free PMC article. No abstract available.

Abstract

Avian influenza (AI) is a complex infection of birds, of which the ecology and epidemiology have undergone substantial changes over the last decade. Avian influenza viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two groups. The very virulent viruses cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), with flock mortality as high as 100%. These viruses have been restricted to subtypes H5 and H7, although not all H5 and H7 viruses cause HPAI. All other viruses cause a milder, primarily respiratory, disease (low pathogenic avian influenza, LPAI), unless exacerbated by other infections or environmental conditions. Until recently, HPAI viruses were rarely isolated from wild birds, but for LPAI viruses extremely high isolation rates have been recorded in surveillance studies, particularly in feral waterfowl. In recent years, there have been costly outbreaks of HPAI in poultry in Italy, the Netherlands and Canada and in each of these countries millions of birds were slaughtered to bring the outbreaks under control. However, these outbreaks tend to have been overshadowed by the H5N1 HPAI virus, initially isolated in China, that has now spread in poultry and/or wild birds throughout Asia and into Europe and Africa, resulting in the death or culling of hundreds of millions of poultry and posing a significant zoonosis threat. Since the 1990s, AI infections due to two subtypes, LPAI H9N2 and HPAI H5N1,have been widespread in poultry across large areas of the world, resulting in a modified eco-epidemiology and a zoonotic potential. An extraordinary effort is required to manage these epidemics from both the human and animal health perspectives.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 13 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Rott R. The pathogenic determinant of influenza virus. Vet Microbiol 1992;33:303–310. - PubMed
    1. Vey M, Orlich M, Adler S, Klenk HD, Rott R, Garten W. Haemagglutinin activation of pathogenic avian influenza viruses of serotype H7 requires the recognition motif R‐X‐R/K‐R. Virology 1992;188:408–413. - PubMed
    1. Wood GW, McCauley JW, Bashiruddin JB, Alexander DJ. Deduced amino acid sequences at the haemagglutinin cleavage site of avian influenza A viruses of H5 and H7 subtypes. Arch Virol 1993;130:209–217. - PubMed
    1. Senne DA, Panigrahy B, Kawaoka Y et al. Survey of the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site sequence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses: amino acid sequence at the HA cleavage site as a marker of pathogenicity potential. Avian Dis 1996;40:425–437. - PubMed
    1. Stieneke‐Grober A, Vey M, Angliker H et al. Influenza virus hemagglutinin with multibasic cleavage site is activated by furin, a subtilisin endoprotease. EMBO J 1992;11:2407–2414. - PMC - PubMed

MeSH terms

Substances

Feedback