In all mammalian species, the final differentiation of the male germ cell occurs in the epididymal duct where the spermatozoa develop the ability to be motile and fertilize an ovum. Understanding of these biological processes is the key to understanding and controlling male fertility. Comparative studies between several mammals could be an informative approach to finding common sperm modifications which are not species-specific. The new global biological approaches such as transcriptomes and proteomes provide considerable information which can be used for such comparative approaches. This report summarizes our proteomic studies of the epididymis of several mammals, including humans.