Alternative microbial hosts have been engineered as biocatalysts for butanol biosynthesis. The butanol synthetic pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum was first re-constructed in Escherichia coli to establish a baseline for comparison to other hosts. Whereas polycistronic expression of the pathway genes resulted in the production of 34 mg/L butanol, individual expression of pathway genes elevated titers to 200 mg/L. Improved titers were achieved by co-expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae formate dehydrogenase while overexpression of E. coli glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase to elevate glycolytic flux improved titers to 580 mg/L. Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis were also explored as alternative production hosts. Polycistronic expression of butanol biosynthetic genes yielded butanol titers of 120 and 24 mg/L from P. putida and B. subtilis, respectively. Production in the obligate aerobe P. putida was dependent upon expression of bcd-etfAB. These results demonstrate the potential of engineering butanol biosynthesis in a variety of heterologous microorganisms, including those cultivated aerobically.