ABINs have been described as three different proteins (ABIN-1, ABIN-2, ABIN-3) that bind the ubiquitin-editing nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibitor protein A20 and which show limited sequence homology. Overexpression of ABINs inhibits NF-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and several other stimuli. Similar to A20, ABIN-1 and ABIN-3 expression is NF-kappaB dependent, implicating a potential role for the A20/ABIN complex in the negative feedback regulation of NF-kappaB activation. Adenoviral gene transfer of ABIN-1 has been shown to reduce NF-kappaB activation in mouse liver and lungs. However, ABIN-1 as well as ABIN-2 deficient mice exhibit only slightly increased or normal NF-kappaB activation, respectively, possibly reflecting redundant NF-kappaB inhibitory activities of multiple ABINs. Other functions of ABINs might be non-redundant. For example, ABIN-1 shares with A20 the ability to inhibit TNF-induced apoptosis and as a result ABIN-1 deficient mice die during embryogenesis due to TNF-dependent fetal liver apoptosis. On the other hand, ABIN-2 is required for optimal TPL-2 dependent extracellularly regulated kinase activation in macrophages treated with TNF or Toll-like receptor ligands. ABINs have recently been shown to contain an ubiquitin-binding domain that is essential for their NF-kappaB inhibitory and anti-apoptotic activities. In this context, ABINs were proposed to function as adaptors between ubiquitinated proteins and other regulatory proteins. Alternatively, ABINs might disrupt signaling complexes by competing with other ubiquitin-binding proteins for the binding to specific ubiquitinated targets. Altogether, these findings implicate an important role for ABINs in the regulation of immunity and tissue homeostasis.