Vaccination with vif-deleted feline immunodeficiency virus provirus, GM-CSF, and TNF-alpha plasmids preserves global CD4 T lymphocyte function after challenge with FIV

Vaccine. 2009 Jun 8;27(28):3754-65. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.081. Epub 2009 Apr 17.


Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) DNA vaccine approaches that included a vif-deleted FIV provirus (FIV-pPPRDeltavif) and feline cytokine expression plasmids were tested for immunogenicity and efficacy by immunization of specific pathogen free cats. Vaccine protocols included FIV-pPPRDeltavif plasmid alone; a combination of FIV-pPPRDeltavif DNA and feline granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha expression plasmids; or a combination of FIV-pPPRDeltavif and feline interleukin (IL)-15 plasmids. Cats immunized with FIV-pPPRDeltavif, GM-CSF and TNF-alpha plasmids demonstrated an increased frequency of FIV-specific T cell proliferation responses compared to other vaccine groups. Immunization with FIV-pPPRDeltavif and IL-15 plasmids was distinguished from other vaccine protocols by the induction of antiviral antibodies. Suppression of virus loads was not observed for any of the FIV-pPPRDeltavif DNA vaccine protocols after challenge with the FIV-PPR isolate. However, prior immunization with FIV-pPPRDeltavif, GM-CSF, and TNF-alpha plasmids resulted in preservation of CD4 T cell functions, including mitogen-induced cytokine expression and antigen-specific proliferation upon infection with FIV. These findings justify further examination of cytokine combinations as adjuvants for lentiviral DNA vaccines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / genetics
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cats
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology
  • Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Products, vif / genetics*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology*
  • Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline / genetics
  • Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline / immunology*
  • Proviruses / genetics
  • Proviruses / immunology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / administration & dosage
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology*
  • Vaccines, DNA / genetics
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology*
  • Viral Load
  • Viral Vaccines / genetics
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Gene Products, vif
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Viral Vaccines
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor