Subjective well-being is modulated by circadian phase, sleep pressure, age, and gender

J Biol Rhythms. 2009 Jun;24(3):232-42. doi: 10.1177/0748730409335546.


Subjective well-being largely depends on mood, which shows circadian rhythmicity and can be linked to rhythms in many physiological circadian markers, such as melatonin and cortisol. In healthy young volunteers mood is influenced by an interaction of circadian phase and the duration of time awake. The authors analyzed this interaction under differential sleep pressure conditions to investigate age and gender effects on subjective well-being. Sixteen healthy young (8 women, 8 men; 20-35 years) and 16 older volunteers (8 women, 8 men; 55-75 years) underwent a 40-h sleep deprivation (high sleep pressure) and a 40-h nap protocol (low sleep pressure) in a balanced crossover design under constant routine conditions. Mood, tension, and physical comfort were assessed by visual analogue scales during scheduled wakefulness, and their average formed a composite score of well-being. Significant variations in well-being were determined by the factors "age," "sleep pressure," and "circadian phase." Well-being was generally worse under high than low sleep pressure. Older volunteers felt significantly worse than the young under both experimental conditions. Significant interactions were found between "sleep pressure" and "age," and between "sleep pressure" and "gender." This indicated that older volunteers and women responded with a greater impairment in well-being under high compared with low sleep pressure. The time course of well-being displayed a significant circadian modulation, particularly in women under high sleep pressure conditions. The results demonstrate age- and/or gender-related modifications of well-being related to sleep deprivation and circadian phase and thus point to specific biological components of mood vulnerability.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Affect / physiology*
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Biological Clocks / physiology
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / analysis
  • Male
  • Melatonin / analysis
  • Middle Aged
  • Saliva / chemistry
  • Sex Factors
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Sleep Deprivation
  • Wakefulness / physiology*
  • Young Adult


  • Melatonin
  • Hydrocortisone