Background: The aim of the study was to determine whether tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and/or tumor mitotic activity could identify subgroups of patients with advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer who would maximally benefit from aggressive surgical cytoreduction.
Methods: Snap-frozen specimens from 134 consecutive patients with stage III or IV serous or poorly differentiated ovarian adenocarcinoma undergoing primary debulking surgery from a single US institution were characterized based on CD3(+), CD8(+), FoxP3(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and Ki67 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated and compared using a log-rank statistic. A multivariate Cox model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios. Interactions were modeled using recursive partitioning based on maximal prognostic differentiation.
Results: Brisk intraepithelial CD8(+) cells (P = .035) and low Ki67 expression (P = .042) portended prolonged survival. The T-cell infiltration was more likely to occur in tumors with high proliferation index. Patients whose tumors exhibited low Ki67 expression and high intraepithelial CD8(+) frequency had a 5-year survival rate of 73.3%. Patients with aggressive tumor behavior, that is, whose tumors exhibited low frequency of intraepithelial CD8(+) T cells or high Ki67 expression were more likely to draw benefit from aggressive surgical cytoreduction. Survival was similar for patients with brisk CD8(+) T cells who had optimal or suboptimal debulking. Likewise, survival was similar for patients with low Ki67 expression who had optimal or suboptimal debulking.
Conclusions: For the first time, these novel interactions of T cells, tumor proliferation index, and surgical treatment reveal that biological prognosticators may be useful for surgical decision making in ovarian cancer.