A rapid wound signal activates the systemic synthesis of bioactive jasmonates in Arabidopsis

Plant J. 2009 Sep;59(6):974-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.03924.x. Epub 2009 May 18.


Jasmonic acid (JA) and its biologically active derivatives (bioactive JAs) perform a critical role in regulating plant responses to wound stress. The perception of bioactive JAs by the F-box protein COI1 triggers the SCF(COI1)/ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins that repress the expression of JA-response genes. JA is required for many wound-inducible systemic defense responses, but little is known about the role of the hormone in long-distance signal relay between damaged and undamaged leaves. Here, we show that the wounding of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves results in the rapid (<5 min) accumulation of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the bioactive form of JA, in leaves distal to the wound site. The rapid systemic increase in JA-Ile preceded the onset of early transcriptional responses, and was associated with JAZ degradation. Wound-induced systemic production of JA-Ile required the JA biosynthetic enzyme 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3 (OPR3) in undamaged responding leaves, but not in wounded leaves, and was largely dependent on the JA-conjugating enzyme JAR1. Interestingly, the wound-induced synthesis of JA/JA-Ile in systemic leaves was correlated with a rapid decline in OPDA levels. These results are consistent with a model in which a rapidly transmitted wound signal triggers the systemic synthesis of JA, which, upon conversion to JA-Ile, activates the expression of early response genes by the SCF(COI1)/JAZ pathway.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Cyclopentanes / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Isoleucine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Isoleucine / biosynthesis
  • Nucleotidyltransferases / metabolism
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Oxylipins / metabolism
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / metabolism
  • RNA, Plant / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • COI1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Cyclopentanes
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • Oxylipins
  • RNA, Plant
  • jasmonoyl-isoleucine
  • Isoleucine
  • 12-oxophytodienoic acid
  • jasmonic acid
  • OPR3 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Oxidoreductases
  • JAR1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Nucleotidyltransferases