Prevalence of cervical cancer screening of HIV-infected women in the United States

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Aug 1;51(4):430-6. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181acb64a.


Background: HIV-infected women are at increased risk of cervical cytologic abnormalities. HIV treatment guidelines recommend annual Papanicolaou (Pap) tests for HIV-infected women. We assessed screening prevalence and associated factors among HIV-infected women.

Methods: We used data collected during 2000-2004 in an interview study of HIV-infected persons in 18 states. We performed logistic regression to describe factors associated with not having an annual Pap test.

Results: Of 2417 women, 556 (23.0%) did not report receiving a Pap test during the past year. Not having a Pap test was associated with increasing age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.3 per 10 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 to 1.4] and most recent CD4 count of <200 cells per microliter (AOR = 1.6, CI: 1.1 to 2.1) or unknown (AOR = 1.4, CI: 1.1 to 1.7; both vs. CD4 count of >or=200 cells/microL). Odds of a missed Pap test increased for women whose most recent pelvic exam was not performed at their usual source of HIV care (AOR = 2.6, CI: 2.1 to 3.2).

Conclusions: Nearly 1 in 4 women did not receive an annual Pap test. HIV care providers should ensure that HIV-infected women receive annual Pap tests, recognizing that missed Pap tests are more likely among older women and women with low CD4 cell counts. Integrating HIV and gynecologic care and educating clinicians about recommendations may increase screening.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Mass Screening
  • Middle Aged
  • Papanicolaou Test
  • Prevalence
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Vaginal Smears