A retrospective epidemiological study of patients' medical records (n = 442) was conducted in one of the tuberculosis (TB) treatment centers in the city of Antananarivo, to identify risk factors of treatment default. Results show that males give up treatment more than women (OR=1,81 [1,13; 3,03]). Among those living farthest away from the center, patients younger than 30 years old tend to be more irregular in the follow-up of their treatment (OR=3,43 [1,16; 10,15]). There is no statistically significant relationship between TB treatment default and the patient's age, the clinical form, the therapeutic regime or the place of residence. Managers of treatment centers should be more aware and vigilant regarding male and young TB patients presenting these characteristics and should adapt methods and means for follow-up according to these risk factors.