This study was performed in order to develop a method for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from a single plasma sample based upon the plasma disappearance rate of the non-ionic contrast medium iohexol. The apparent distribution volume for iohexol was measured in 100 infants and children and used for establishment of a weight-related empirical formula for the distribution volume. Using the distribution volume obtained by this formula, a preliminary GFR was calculated from the iodine concentration measured in a plasma sample taken 3 h after injection of iohexol. When this estimate was corrected by another empirically established correction factor, a high degree of agreement was found between a GFR reference method and the 3-h single plasma sample method. In another group of 13 children the 3-h single plasma sample GFR was estimated twice with a 2-day interval, and the day-to-day variations were found to be similar to those obtained with other standard methods.