The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is increasingly attractive for use as a non-human primate animal model in biomedical research. It has a relatively high reproduction rate for a primate, making it potentially suitable for transgenic modification. Although several attempts have been made to produce non-human transgenic primates, transgene expression in the somatic tissues of live infants has not been demonstrated by objective analyses such as polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription or western blots. Here we show that the injection of a self-inactivating lentiviral vector in sucrose solution into marmoset embryos results in transgenic common marmosets that expressed the transgene in several organs. Notably, we achieved germline transmission of the transgene, and the transgenic offspring developed normally. The successful creation of transgenic marmosets provides a new animal model for human disease that has the great advantage of a close genetic relationship with humans. This model will be valuable to many fields of biomedical research.