Introduction: Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remains unclear. Both 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion have been reported as early oxidative DNA damage markers. In this study, 8-OHdG levels in saliva and mtDNA deletions in gingival tissue of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) were evaluated.
Materials and methods: Gingival tissue and whole saliva samples were collected from 32 patients with CP and 32 healthy control subjects. To determine the clinical condition of each subject, the plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level (CAL), and probing depth (PD) were measured. Using the ELISA and polymerase chain reaction methods, the salivary 8-OHdG levels and the 7.4-kbp and 5-kbp mtDNA deletions were examined.
Results: The 5-kbp mtDNA deletion was detected in 20 of the 32 periodontitis patients (62.5%), but was not detected in the healthy controls. The mean value of 8-OHdG in the saliva of the periodontitis patients with deleted mtDNA was significantly higher than in the patients with non-deleted mtDNA (p<0.01). Also, significant correlation was found between the occurrence of the 5-kbp mtDNA deletion and salivary 8-OHdG levels (p<0.01). Similar correlations were detected between salivary 8-OHdG levels and age, PD, and CAL (p<0.01, p<0.05).
Conclusion: Increased oxidative stress may lead to premature oxidative DNA damage in the gingival tissue of periodontitis patients and the salivary 8-OHdG level may signify premature oxidative mtDNA damage in diseased gingival tissue.