Physiologically based predictions of the impact of inhibition of intestinal and hepatic metabolism on human pharmacokinetics of CYP3A substrates

J Pharm Sci. 2010 Jan;99(1):486-514. doi: 10.1002/jps.21802.


The first objective of the present study was to predict the pharmacokinetics of selected CYP3A substrates administered at a single oral dose to human. The second objective was to predict pharmacokinetics of the selected drugs in presence of inhibitors of the intestinal and/or hepatic CYP3A activity. We developed a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (WB-PBPK) model accounting for presystemic elimination of midazolam (MDZ), alprazolam (APZ), triazolam (TRZ), and simvastatin (SMV). The model also accounted for concomitant administration of the above-mentioned drugs with CYP3A inhibitors, namely ketoconazole (KTZ), itraconazole (ITZ), diltiazem (DTZ), saquinavir (SQV), and a furanocoumarin contained in grape-fruit juice (GFJ), namely 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Model predictions were compared to published clinical data. An uncertainty analysis was performed to account for the variability and uncertainty of model parameters when predicting the model outcomes. We also briefly report on the results of our efforts to develop a global sensitivity analysis and its application to the current WB-PBPK model. Considering the current criterion for a successful prediction, judged satisfied once the clinical data are captured within the 5th and 95th percentiles of the predicted concentration-time profiles, a successful prediction has been obtained for a single oral administration of MDZ and SMV. For APZ and TRZ, however, a slight deviation toward the 95th percentile was observed especially for C(max) but, overall, the in vivo profiles were well captured by the PBPK model. Moreover, the impact of DHB-mediated inhibition on the extent of intestinal pre-systemic elimination of MDZ and SMV has been accurately predicted by the proposed PBPK model. For concomitant administrations of MDZ and ITZ, APZ and KTZ, as well as SMV and DTZ, the in vivo concentration-time profiles were accurately captured by the model. A slight deviation was observed for SMV when coadministered with ITZ, whereas more important deviations have been obtained between the model predictions and in vivo concentration-time profiles of MDZ coadministered with SQV. The same observation was made for TRZ when administered with KTZ. Most of the pharmacokinetic parameters predicted by the PBPK model were successfully predicted within a two-fold error range either in the absence or presence of metabolism-based inhibition. Overall, the present study demonstrated the ability of the PBPK model to predict DDI of CYP3A substrates with promising accuracy.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Beverages
  • Citrus paradisi / chemistry
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / metabolism
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / physiology*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Interactions
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Furocoumarins / isolation & purification
  • Furocoumarins / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism*
  • Intestines / physiology
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Liver / physiology
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism
  • Models, Biological*
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Organ Specificity
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / administration & dosage
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism*
  • Pharmacokinetics*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Furocoumarins
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • CYP3A protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A