The effect of the plasma n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on the dietary LDL phenotype transformation - insights from the LIPGENE study

Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct;28(5):510-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2009.04.016. Epub 2009 May 28.


Background & aims: LDL phenotype B is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress. The effect of plasma n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio on LDL phenotype transformation was investigated.

Methods: Patients with metabolic syndrome (n=99) received one of four isocaloric diets: (A) High-fat (38% energy) SFA-rich diet (HSFA); (B) High-fat (38% energy), MUFA-rich diet (HMUFA); (C), low-fat (LF) (28% energy), high-complex carbohydrate diet with 1.24g/d oleic sunflower oil (LFHCC) and (D): low-fat (28% energy), high-complex carbohydrate diet, with 1.24g/d LC n-3 PUFA (LFHCC n-3) for 12 weeks. Analysis of plasma lipid profile and LDL phenotype was done pre- and post-interventions.

Results: Post-dietary change of LDL density was a main effect observed in all groups. LFHCC n-3 and HFMUFA diets resulted in favorable alteration of LDL phenotype from B to A and decreased LDL density. In contrast, increased LDL density was observed in HSFA and LFHCC groups. The plasma pre-n3/n6 PUFA, Apo E change and pre-Apo CIII/CII ratios explained in 65% the post-dietary change of LDL density in diet LFHCC n-3 consumers.

Conclusions: Study demonstrates efficacy of dietary n-3 PUFA to modify pro-atherogenic to less atherogenic LDL phenotype in patients with metabolic syndrome. Study identifier at was NCT00429195.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Atherosclerosis / prevention & control
  • Centrifugation, Density Gradient
  • Diet, Fat-Restricted
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / administration & dosage
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / blood*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-6 / blood*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • Lipoproteins / blood
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood*
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / chemistry
  • Male
  • Matched-Pair Analysis
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diet therapy*
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Dietary Fats
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-6
  • Lipids
  • Lipoproteins
  • Lipoproteins, LDL

Associated data