The relationship between smoking machine derived tar yields and biomarkers of exposure in adult cigarette smokers in the US

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009 Oct;55(1):17-27. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.05.016. Epub 2009 May 28.

Abstract

Comprehensive data on human exposure to smoke constituents from different machine-measured tar yield cigarettes is limited.

Methods: This study used a stratified, cross-sectional, multi-center design to estimate biomarkers of exposure (BOE) from nicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), pyrene, CO, acrolein, and 1,3-butadiene and their relationship to tar yield categories of cigarette in adult smokers in the U.S. 3625 adults smokers were enrolled into four tar categories < or =2.9 mg (T1), 3.0-6.9 mg (T2), 7.0-12.9 mg (T3), and > or =13.0mg (T4). Biomarkers were measured in blood (carboxyhemoglobin, 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin (4-ABP-Hb)-adducts, serum cotinine) and 24h urine (nicotine and five metabolites, calculated as nicotine equivalents (NE), NNAL, 1-OH-pyrene, 3-HPMA, MHBMA and DHBMA). Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).

Results: Tar was a significant factor for most biomarkers in the ANCOVA models. The largest least square mean differences between tar categories was 35% for NE per day, 28% for NE per cigarette, 36% for serum cotinine, 42% for NNAL per day, 29% for NNAL per cigarette, 26% for 1-OHP, 24% for COHb, 14% for 3-HPMA and 40% for 4-ABP-Hb. Variability in BOE ranged from 41% to 154% CV.

Conclusions: There was a statistically significant effect of machine-measured tar yield on most BOE, which were generally lower with lower tar yield.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Acrolein / analysis
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Butadienes / analysis
  • Carbon Dioxide / analysis
  • Chemistry Techniques, Analytical / instrumentation
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / analysis*
  • Nicotine / metabolism
  • Nitrosamines / analysis
  • Observation
  • Pyrenes / analysis
  • Reference Standards
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Smoking / metabolism*
  • Tars / analysis*
  • Tars / metabolism
  • Tobacco / chemistry
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Butadienes
  • Nitrosamines
  • Pyrenes
  • Tars
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Nicotine
  • Acrolein
  • 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
  • pyrene
  • 1,3-butadiene