Development of self-efficacy and expectancy measures for benzodiazepines

Addict Behav. 2009 Sep;34(9):751-6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.04.014. Epub 2009 May 3.


This study aimed to develop and assess the reliability and validity of a pair of self-report questionnaires to measure self-efficacy and expectancy associated with benzodiazepine use, the Benzodiazepine Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (BRSEQ) and the Benzodiazepine Expectancy Questionnaire (BEQ). Internal structure of the questionnaires was established by principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of 155 respondents, and verified by confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in a second independent sample (n=139) using structural equation modeling. The PCA of the BRSEQ resulted in a 16-item, 4-factor scale, and the BEQ formed an 18-item, 2-factor scale. Both scales were internally reliable. CFA confirmed these internal structures and reduced the questionnaires to a 14-item self-efficacy scale and a 12-item expectancy scale. Lower self-efficacy and higher expectancy were moderately associated with higher scores on the SDS-B. The scales provide reliable measures for assessing benzodiazepine self-efficacy and expectancies. Future research will examine the utility of the scales in prospective prediction of benzodiazepine cessation.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Benzodiazepines*
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychometrics
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation*
  • Young Adult


  • Benzodiazepines