Urinary S100A1B and S100BB were measured to detect cases at risk of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in asphyxiated newborns. We recruited 42 asphyxiated infants and 63 healthy term neonates. S100A1B and S100BB were measured at first urination (time 0) and at 4 (time 1), 8 (time 2), 12 (time 3), 16 (time 4), 20 (time 5), 24 (time 6), 72 (time 7) hours after birth. 20 infants had no/mild HIE with good prognosis (Group A) and 22 had moderate/severe HIE with a greater risk of neurological handicap (Group B). Urine S100A1B and S100BB levels were significantly (P less than 0.0.01, for all) higher at all monitoring time-points in Group B than Group A and controls, but not between Group A and controls. Both S100A1B and S100BB have great sensitivity and specificity for HIE since their first measurement. In conclusion, S100A1B and S100BB are increased in urine collected from asphyxiated newborns who will develop HIE since first urination, and their measurement may be useful to early predict HIE when monitoring procedures are still of no avail.