The first Austrian Osteoporosis Report was initiated to create a comprehensive reference document for the pathogenesis, diagnostics, therapy, and rehabilitation of osteoporosis. Furthermore, the aim was to present the extent and severity of osteoporosis and the associated complications in Austria. On the basis of current international prevalence, it can be estimated that approximately 740,000 of people in Austria over 50 years are affected by osteoporosis, of whom around 617,000 are women. A special analysis of the hospital discharge statistics showed that, in the year 2005, 1382 men and 8080 women were discharged from Austrian hospitals with the main diagnosis, osteoporosis. Added to these 9711 male cases and 54,840 females cases were documented with osteoporosis as a secondary diagnosis. In Austria around 16,500 people suffer a hip fracture each year. Thus, with a fracture rate of 19.7 fractures per year per 10,000 inhabitants over the age of 65 years, Austria lies within the peak for Europe. The hospital mortality rate amongst patients with fracture of the femur is 3.8% in men and 3.2% in women in Austria. Everybody's bone health can be positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle; however, the Osteoporoses Report revealed insufficiencies regarding lifestyle risk factors in the Austrian population. Average calcium intake amongst Austrian adult women and amongst male and female seniors is lower than recommended and only adult men achieve around the recommended amount. The mean vitamin D intake in Austria is very poor, especially amongst pre-schoolers and seniors. The rate of Austrians reporting regular physical exercise is in need of improvement, especially amongst elderly people. The data presented in the Austrian Osteoporosis Report are useful to enable the development of public health strategies and methods to help resolve some of these problems, and ultimately contribute to improved bone health in the nation.