Post-concussion symptoms after traumatic brain injury at 3 and 12 months post-injury: a prospective study

Brain Inj. 2009 Jun;23(6):489-97. doi: 10.1080/02699050902926309.


Primary objectives: To examine self-reported post-concussion symptoms from 3-12 months post-injury in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify predictors of these symptoms.

Methods and procedures: A 1-year prospective study in Eastern Norway including 115 persons (16-55 years), with mild, moderate and severe TBI. The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 12 months.

Results: In the whole sample of TBI, 27.8% of cases developed post-concussion syndrome (PCS) at 3 months and 23.6% at 12 months post-injury. The mild and moderate groups showed a decline of PCS symptoms over time, in contrast to the severe TBI group. Greater levels of somatic, cognitive and anxiety symptoms at 3 months, as well as shorter PTA duration, were found to be important predictors for the severity of PCS symptoms at 12 months. Intracranial pathology, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and demographic variables were not related to the severity of PCS symptoms.

Conclusions: PCS symptoms were reported to a greater degree in persons with mild TBI at 3 months post-injury. One year after injury, no differences were found between TBI groups on the presence of PCS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Brain Injuries / complications
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Brain Injuries / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / etiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult