The direct effect of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) on lung function is still debated. Objective. To investigate the role of esophageal acidification in affecting airway response to MCh in GER-related versus atopic asthmatics and to assess specificity and sensitivity of events. Subjects. A total of 56 never-smoking, mild asthmatics: 27 non-atopic asthmatics and acid GER (GER+ve) and 29 atopic asthmatics without any GER (GER-ve). Methods. Each subject performed an MCh challenge in baseline (MCh(b)), and 30 minutes after an acid drink (125 mL at pH = 2; MCh(ac)), one day apart. PD(20)FEV(1) MCh(b) and MCh(ac) were compared by estimating the area under the ROC curve (AU-ROC). Results. GER+ve and GER-ve subjects (well matched in baseline) had a different duration of esophageal acid contact (24-hour monitoring; pH-24h AU(4)), and PD(20)FEV(1) MCh(ac) (both p < 0.001). AU-ROC was 86.3% (76% to 97%, 95%CI). Sensitivity and specificity of changes were 82.8% (72.9% to 92.7%, 95%CI) and 85.2% (75.9% to 94.5%, 95%CI), respectively. The difference in MCh threshold that maximized both the sensitivity and specificity level was 100 mu g. Conclusions. The esophageal acidification identified GER-related asthma with a good level of both sensitivity and specificity by enhancing the MCh response only in the presence of acid GER. Data are supporting the effectiveness of this procedure for clinical purposes.