Chronic kidney disease is at least 3-4 times more frequent in Africa than in developed countries. Hypertension affects approximately 25% of the adult population and is the cause of chronic kidney failure in 21% of patients on renal replacement therapy in the South African Registry. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is estimated to be 14%-16% in South Africa, 23.8% in Zambia, 12.4% in Egypt, 9% in Sudan, and 6.1% in Ethiopia. The current dialysis treatment rate ranges from 70 per million population (pmp) in South Africa to < 20 pmp in the most of sub-Saharan Africa. The transplant rate in Africa averages 4 pmp and is 9.2 pmp in South Africa. The goal for sub-Saharan Africa should be to have a circumscribed chronic dialysis program, with as short a time on dialysis as possible, and to increase the availability of transplantation (both living related and cadaver) and promotion of prevention strategies at all levels of health care. Screening for kidney disease in high-risk populations, eg, patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus and a family history of kidney disease, should be instituted as the first step in kidney disease prevention in developing countries.