The role of telencephalic NO and cGMP in avoidance conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Behav Neurosci. 2009 Jun;123(3):614-23. doi: 10.1037/a0015243.


Our previous study with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D-AP5 suggested that NMDA receptors were involved in learning but not memory consolidation of avoidance conditioning. The present study investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were involved in memory consolidation but not learning of avoidance conditioning in goldfish. Experiments 1 to 3 investigated amnestic and performance effects of NO inhibitor L-NAME and cGMP inhibitor LY-83583. Experiment 4 investigated whether posttraining intratelencephalic injection of NO donor SNAP ameliorated anterograde amnestic effects of pretraining NO inhibitor L-NAME. The results showed that L-NAME and LY-83583 produced significant anterograde and retrograde amnesia at doses that did not impair performance processes, and the drugs produced more severe retrograde than anterograde amnesia. Furthermore, posttraining SNAP significantly ameliorated anterograde amnestic effects of pretraining L-NAME. Thus, our previous results with D-AP5 and current results with L-NAME and LY-83583 together suggest that the NMDA receptors are involved in learning or the process that is completed during training, whereas the NO and cGMP are involved in memory consolidation or the process that is normally completed sometime following the learning experience.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aminoquinolines / pharmacology
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Avoidance Learning / drug effects
  • Avoidance Learning / physiology*
  • Conditioning, Psychological / drug effects
  • Conditioning, Psychological / physiology*
  • Cyclic GMP / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism*
  • Electroshock
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Goldfish / physiology*
  • Memory / drug effects
  • Memory / physiology*
  • Memory Disorders / chemically induced
  • Microinjections
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester / pharmacology
  • Nitric Oxide / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism*
  • Nitric Oxide Donors / pharmacology
  • Random Allocation
  • S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine / pharmacology
  • Telencephalon / drug effects
  • Telencephalon / physiology*


  • Aminoquinolines
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide Donors
  • Nitric Oxide
  • S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine
  • 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione
  • Cyclic GMP
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester