Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains are characterized by accumulation of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) and neuroinflammation. Increased blood-to-brain influx and decreased brain-to-blood efflux across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been proposed as mechanisms for Abeta accumulation. Epidemiological studies suggest that the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin slows the progression of AD. We hypothesized that inflammation alters BBB handling of Abeta. Mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) had increased brain influx and decreased brain efflux of Abeta, recapitulating the findings in AD. Neither influx nor efflux was mediated by LPS acting directly on BBB cells. Increased influx was mediated by a blood-borne factor, indomethacin-independent, blocked by the triglyceride triolein, and not related to expression of the blood-to-brain transporter of Abeta, RAGE. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and MCP-1 mirrored changes in Abeta influx. Decreased efflux was blocked by indomethacin and accompanied by decreased protein expression of the brain-to-blood transporter of Abeta, LRP-1. LPS paradoxically increased expression of neuronal LRP-1, a major source of Abeta. Thus, inflammation potentially increases brain levels of Abeta by three mechanisms: increased influx, decreased efflux, and increased neuronal production.