The antioxidant activity of L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine, bioactivated in ocular tissues) versus N-acetylcarnosine (N-acetyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine, ocular-targeted small dipeptide molecules) was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid environment, employing liposomes as a model of lipid membranes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated by an iron/ascorbate promoter system for induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO). L-carnosine, which is stabilized from enzymatic hydrolysis, operates as a universal aldehyde and ROS scavenger in both aqueous and lipid environments and is effective at preventing ROS-induced damage to biomolecules. Second-generation carnosine analogs bearing the histidyl-hydrazide moiety were synthesized and tested versus L-carnosine for their ability to reverse the glycation process, also known as the Maillard reaction, and reverse the stable intermolecular cross-links, monitored in the glucose-ethylamine Schiff base model, ultimately resulting in the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) from nonenzymatic glycation, accumulating in numerous body tissues and fluids. The obtained data demonstrate the transglycation properties of the ophthalmically stabilized L-carnosine and L-carnosine histidyl-hydrazide derivatives tested and can be used to decrease or predict the occurrence of long-term complications of AGE formation and improve therapeutically the quality of vision and length of life for diabetes mellitus patients and survivors with early aging. Scientists at Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP), developed lubricant eyedrops designed as a sustained-release 1% N-acetylcarnosine prodrug of L-carnosine. The eyedrops contain a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters and glycerine in a drug-delivery system. Anti-aging therapeutics with the ophthalmic drug eyedrop formula including N-acetylcarnosine showed efficacy in the nonsurgical treatment of age-related cataracts for enrolled participants in the prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial after controlling for age, gender, and daily activities. In a cohort in excess of 50,500 various patients seeking cutting-edge medical care, the N-acetylcarnosine topical eyedrops target therapy was demonstrated to have significant efficacy, safety, and good tolerability for the prevention and treatment of visual impairment in this older population with relatively stable patterns of causes for blindness and visual impairment. Overall, accumulated study data demonstrate that the IVP-designed new vision-saving drugs, including N-acetylcarnosine eyedrops, promote health vision and prevent vision disability from senile cataracts, primary open-angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and aging. N-acetylcarnosine eyedrop therapy is the crown jewel of the anti-aging medical movement and revolutionizes early detection, treatment, and rejuvenation of aging-related eye-disabling disorders. N-acetylcarnosine, as an innovative medical science tool and component of the home medicine and alternative medicine approaches, has the potential to alleviate visual impairment and its associated social, economic, and political woes for an aging population.