Raman-assisted X-ray crystallography for the analysis of biomolecules

Methods Mol Biol. 2009:544:253-67. doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-483-4_16.


In this chapter, we describe Raman microspectrophotometry applied to crystals of biomolecules. Raman spectra collected in crystallo provide structural information highly complementary to X-ray diffraction, relate the crystalline state to the solution state, and allow the identification of ligand-bound or intermediate states of macromolecules. Nonresonant Raman spectroscopy is particularly suitable to the study of macromolecular crystals, and therefore applies to a wide range of noncolored crystalline proteins. Practical issues related to the investigation of crystals by Raman microspectrophotometry are reviewed, and the current limitations are highlighted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biopolymers / analysis*
  • Biopolymers / isolation & purification
  • Crystallization
  • Crystallography, X-Ray / methods*
  • Data Collection
  • Multiprotein Complexes / analysis
  • Multiprotein Complexes / isolation & purification
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman / instrumentation
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods*


  • Biopolymers
  • Multiprotein Complexes